Ciprofloxacin is the common form of the brand antibiotic Cipro.
Doctors prescribe Ciprofloxacin for the treatment or prevention of infections caused by various bacteria that are sensitive to ciprofloxacin.
The drug works by preventing the reproduction of bacteria. Ciprofloxacin belongs to a family of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Ciprofloxacin in 1987 for Bayer Healthcare under the trademark Cipro.
In 2004, the FDA approved a generic ciprofloxacin for several drug manufacturers.
Today, companies also sell Ciprofloxacin under the trade names Cipro XR Extended-Release Tablets and Proquin XR Extended-Release Tablets.
Doctors prescribe Ciprofloxacin for the treatment of infections caused by various types of bacteria, including:
- staphylococcus aureus
Common infections treated with ciprofloxacin include:
- Skin Infections
- Urinary tract infection (UTI)
- Diseases of bones and joints
- Diarrhea caused by bacteria
- Typhoid fever
Ciprofloxacin will not work against infections caused by viruses (for example, colds and flu), so your doctor will prescribe ciprofloxacin only if you have a bacterial infection.
This is because the use of antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, against viruses or other diseases that they can not treat, increases the likelihood that over time they will no longer work against bacterial infections.
Known as drug resistance, this growing world threat is developing because bacteria can adapt, making antibiotics less effective or generally ineffective.
These bacteria, resistant to several drugs, can spread through direct contact or indirectly through food or water.
In 2014, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that a spike in gonorrhea in 17 American cities between 1991 and 2006 was possibly due to the resistance of ciprofloxacin.
Ciprofloxacin may increase the risk of swelling and rupture of tendons, such as those that attach muscles to bones in the hands, shoulders and ankles.
The likelihood of damage to the tendon will be greater if you also take steroid medications or over 60 years of age. If you experience pain or swelling with Ciprofloxacin, inform your doctor.
In some people, ciprofloxacin can cause changes in brain activity.
Possible symptoms of these changes include dizziness, hallucinations, tremors, convulsions, confusion, depression and suicidal thoughts.
If you have any of these symptoms while taking Ciprofloxacin, tell your doctor immediately.
Ciprofloxacin can cause a serious reaction called anaphylaxis if you are allergic to it.
This allergic reaction, which can endanger life, may include urticaria, swelling of the throat, and shortness of breath.
It is important to know that as soon as you start the ciprofloxacin course, you must finish the entire course.
Do not stop taking Ciprofloxacin, even if you are feeling better.
If you do not take the antibiotic long enough, your infection can return with renewed vigor. And stopping the use of ciprofloxacin too early can lead to the fact that the bacteria will become resistant to it.
You may not be able to take Ciprofloxacin if you have a condition called myasthenia. Ciprofloxacin can increase the muscle weakness caused by this condition.
You should also take Ciprofloxacin with caution if you have certain conditions. Tell your doctor if you:
- Heartburn or reflux
- Injury of the tendons
- Heart condition is not very good
- Liver disease
- Kidney disease
Ciprofloxacin and pregnancy
Before taking Ciprofloxacin, women should tell their doctor if they are pregnant or are breast-feeding.
It is not known whether ciprofloxacin is safe during pregnancy.
Experts know that Ciprofloxacin passes through breast milk, so it is not safe to take it if you are breastfeeding.
Except for children with several specific and serious infections, no one under the age of 18 should take Ciprofloxacin.
Side Effects of Ciprofloxacin
The most common side effects are nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and rash. Tell your doctor if you have any side effects.
Less common side effects:
- Abdominal pain
- Body aches and pains
- Sensitivity to sunlight
- Loss of appetite
Serious side effects can also occur. If you have any of these side effects, stop taking Ciprofloxacin and immediately consult your doctor or call 911:
- Unusual thoughts or hallucinations
- Depression or suicidal thoughts
- Numbness, tingling, or weakness
- Swelling or pain near the joint
- Thoracic pain
- Severe or bloody diarrhea
- Skin rash, hives or blisters on the skin
- Difficulty breathing or swallowing
- Swelling of the face, throat or body
- Decreased ability to pass urine
- Loss of consciousness
- Unusual bruising or bleeding
- Yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice) or urine of dark color
Interactions of Ciprofloxacin
Some drugs can affect the work of Ciprofloxacin, and Ciprofloxacin can affect other drugs that you take.
It is very important that your doctor knows about all the medicines that you take, including OTC antacids, vitamins and supplements.
Many antacids, vitamins and supplements containing magnesium, calcium, aluminum, iron or zinc, can interfere with ciprofloxacin.
Other over-the-counter drugs, like Advil, Aleve and Motrin, can also interact with ciprofloxacin.
Ciprofloxacin can enhance the effect of caffeine.
If you drink caffeinated drinks or take caffeine-containing medicines while taking ciprofloxacin, you may have some side effects from caffeine, such as nervousness, insomnia, or anxiety.
You may not be able to take Ciprofloxacin if you are also taking theophylline for asthma and wheezing (brand names include Elixophyllin, Uniphyl and Theo-24).
Serious reactions, including a heart attack, a decreased ability to breathe and convulsions, occurred when people took these medications together.
Other drugs that interact with ciprofloxacin include:
- Blood solvents such as Warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven)
- Medicines against seizures, including Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek)
- Some antidepressants and medications for the treatment of mental illnesses, such as clozapine (Clozaril, FazaClo)
- Medications containing caffeine, including Excedrin, NoDoz and Vivarin
- The immunosuppressant cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune)
- Muscular relaxant Tizanidine (Zanaflex)
- Some medications for irregular heartbeat, such as Amiodarone (Cordarone), Dysopyramide (Norpace) and Procaineamide (Procanbid)
- Methotrexate arthritis drug (Rheumatrex, Trexall)
- The drug used to treat nausea, vomiting, heartburn and reflux, called metoclopramide (Reglan)
- Glyburide of a Type 2 drug (DiaBeta, Glucovance, Micronase)
- Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and Naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn)
Other interactions of ciprofloxacin
Ciprofloxacin can cause drowsiness and confusion. Do not take or take part in any dangerous activities until you learn how ciprofloxacin affects you.
Ciprofloxacin can make the skin more sensitive to sun exposure.
Do not use the solarium and avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight when using it. Protect your skin in the sun with clothing or sunscreen.
You can take Ciprofloxacin with or without food.
Do not take Ciprofloxacin only with dairy products or only with calcium fortified juice, because calcium can interfere with the absorption of ciprofloxacin.
You can, however, take Ciprofloxacin with a meal that includes milk or calcium fortified juice.
Dosage of ciprofloxacin
Your dose of ciprofloxacin will depend on the type of bacterial infection that you have.
Ciprofloxacin is supplied to conventional sustained release tablets and as a liquid.
Take regular tablets or liquid twice a day (morning and evening) at about the same time each day and take sustained release tablets once a day.
Swallow all the pills intact. Do not crush, break or chew them.
Conventional tablets are obtained in 250, 500 and 750 milligrams (mg).
Some typical doses for common infections using conventional tablets include:
- Uncomplicated gonorrhea infection: 250 mg, single dose
- Uncomplicated urinary tract infection: 250 mg every 12 hours for three days
- Bacterial diarrhea: 500 mg every 12 hours for 5-7 days
- Acute sinusitis: 500 mg every 12 hours for 10 days
- Severe pneumonia: 750 mg every 12 hours for 7-14 days
- Chronic bacterial prostatitis: 500 mg every 12 hours for 28 days
- Moderate infection of bones or joints: 500 mg every 12 hours for four to six weeks
Overdose of ciprofloxacin
A large overdose of ciprofloxacin can cause kidney damage.
In animal studies, very large doses of ciprofloxacin caused a decrease in respiration, vomiting and convulsions.
If an overdose occurs, call the poison control center
If you or someone has serious symptoms after an overdose, call 9-1-1.
The missed dose of ciprofloxacin
Take Ciprofloxacin exactly as prescribed by your doctor.
Do not stop taking Ciprofloxacin by yourself. Skipping doses or stopping too early can lead to a more severe infection, which is more difficult to treat.
If you miss a dose of ciprofloxacin, use the missed dose as soon as you remember.
If it is time for the next regular dose, do not take the missed dose.
Do not double your dose to make up for the missed one.