Isoniazid is a drug used alone or with other drugs to treat or prevent tuberculosis (TB).
TB is an infectious disease that mainly affects the lungs. According to the World Health Organization, in 2013, due to this disease, 1.5 million people died.
Isoniazid works by killing growing bacteria.
The drug is used in combination products and is sold in combination with other drugs under the trademarks of IsonaRif, Rifamate and Rifater.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Isoniazid in 1952. It is manufactured by BarrLaboratories, Inc. and others.
Isoniazid can lead to serious and sometimes fatal liver damage.
Tell your doctor if you have ever had liver disease, or if you have a history of alcoholism or drug use before taking this medicine.
Also tell your doctor if you experience any of the following symptoms when taking isoniazid:
- Excessive fatigue
- Lack of energy
- Loss of appetite
- Stomach upset
- Abdominal pain
- Urine of dark color
- Yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice)
Women of African American women, Hispanic or newly born child, may have an increased risk of developing liver problems with taking Isoniazid.
People over 35 also have a better chance of developing liver damage.
Before taking Isoniazid, your health care provider should know whether you have or have ever had:
- Kidney disease
- Peripheral neuropathy (tingling, burning or pain in the fingers or toes)
- The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- Hepatitis of any type
- Poor nutrition
- Allergy to medicines
If you have diabetes, isoniazid can affect blood sugar levels. Watch him carefully. Also, do not use Clinitest to check your urine for sugar, because isoniazid can interfere with the results.
This medicine works only against tuberculosis bacteria. It will not cure a viral infection.
Pregnancy and Isoniazid
It is not known whether isoniazid can harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or can become pregnant before taking this medicine.
The drug enters the breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Isoniazid without discussing this with your doctor.
Tell your doctor if any of the following side effects become serious or persistent:
- Eye problems
- Easy indigestion
Serious side effects of isoniazid
Immediately notify your doctor if you experience the following serious side effects:
- Numbness or tingling of hands or feet
- Eye Pain
- Skin rash
- Sore throat
- Swollen glands
- Unusual bleeding or bruising
- Stomach ache
- Changes in memory or mood
- Symptoms of an allergic reaction that may include hives, itching, shortness of breath or swelling of the face, mouth, lips, or tongue
Tell your doctor about all the medicines that you take, especially:
- Antabuse (disulfiram)
- Dilintine (phenytoin)
- Nizoral (ketoconazole)
- Tegretol (carbamazepine)
- Theophylline (Teobide, Theo-Dur)
- Tylenol (acetaminophen)
- Valproic acid (Depakene, Depakote)
Isoniazid and alcohol
Do not drink alcohol while taking Isoniazid.
Consuming alcohol while using this medication can increase the risk of liver damage.
Tell your doctor if you are drinking alcoholic beverages or have a history of alcohol abuse.
Isoniazid and food
You may need to avoid foods high in tyramine or histamine because they can cause high blood pressure.
Some of them include:
- Whey cheese
- Red wine
- Meat and sausages
- Sour cream
- Soy sauce
- Tropical fish
Talk with your doctor about what foods should be restricted when using Isoniazid.
Isoniazid is supplied as a tablet, capsule, sustained release tablet or oral syrup. It can also be administered as an injection.
Your dose will depend on your age, weight, health and response to treatment.
When used orally, the drug is usually taken once a day on an empty stomach. But you can take isoniazid with food if you experience stomach upset.
Isoniazid injection is usually done in medical institutions. Usually they are done two or three times a week.
When you take this medicine, carefully follow the instructions of your doctor. Do not use more or less isoniazid than recommended.
Sometimes Isoniazid therapy should be continued for a long period of time (6 to 12 months).
Overdose with Isoniazid
Symptoms of an overdose of isoniazid may include:
- Blurred vision
- Loss of consciousness
- Slurred speech
- Uneven breathing
- Unusual drowsiness
- Increased thirst or urination
If you suspect an overdose, immediately contact a poison control center or an emergency room.
The missed dose of isoniazid
If you miss a dose of isoniazid, take it as soon as you remember.
But skip it if it comes in time for the next dose.
Do not take additional medication to make up for the missed dose.