Ketoconazole is the common form of the drug Nizoral.
It comes in the form of cream and tablets and is used to treat serious fungal infections when other medicines can not be taken.
Ketoconazole is a class of drugs called imidazoles. He works by stopping the growth of the fungus.
The medicine was manufactured by Janssen Pharmaceuticals and was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1981.
Ketoconazole from hair loss
Ketoconazole is sometimes used to treat hair loss. It is found in shampoos.
While the study is not convincing about the efficacy of ketoconazole for the treatment of hair loss, a study published in the Journal of Dermatology in 2005 found that a 2 percent increase in ketoconazole stimulates hair growth in mice.
Only a small amount of the drug is absorbed by the skin, so there are no serious side effects associated with shampoo.
Ketoconazole for dogs and cats
Ketoconazole is sometimes used in dogs and cats to treat fungal and bacterial skin infections.
It is also used to treat Cushing’s syndrome (a hormone disorder caused by high levels of cortisol) in some pets.
Talk to your veterinarian about the benefits and risks associated with giving this medication to your dog or cat.
The drug can cause severe damage to the liver, which can lead to liver transplantation or death.
Immediately consult your doctor if you experience the following symptoms:
- Yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice)
- Pain in the upper part of the stomach
- Loss of appetite
- Urine of dark color
Alcohol consumption when taking ketoconazole may increase the risk of liver side effects. Avoid drinking alcohol while taking this medication.
Tell your doctor if you have or have ever had liver problems.
Ketoconazole can cause a heart rhythm disturbance, known as QT prolongation. This condition can lead to seizures, loss of consciousness, fainting or sudden death.
Stop taking Ketoconazole and tell your doctor immediately if you have experienced:
- Frequent or irregular heartbeat
- Loss of consciousness
When using ketoconazole, do not take the following drugs:
- Disopyramide (Norpace)
- Dofetilide (Tikosin)
- Dronedarone (Multaq)
- Pimozide (Orap)
- Quinidex (Quinaglute)
- Cisapride (Propulsid, no longer available in the US)
- Methadone (dolofin, metadose)
- Ranolasin (Ranexa)
- Alprazolam (Niravam, Xanax)
- Eplerenone (Inspra)
- The alkaloids of ergot, such as ergotamine (Ergomar, Cafergot, Migergot), dihydroergotamine (DHE 45, Migranal) and methylergonovine (megergin)
- Felodipine (Plendil)
- Irinotecan (camptosar)
- Lovastatin (Mevakor)
- Lurasidon (Latuda)
- Midazolam (Versed)
- Nisoldipine (Sular)
- Simvastatin (Zocor)
- Tolvaptan (Samsk)
- Triazolam (Halcion)
When ketoconazole is taken in high doses, it can cause adrenal gland problems, decreased testosterone and reduced sperm production.
Talk with your doctor about these possible risks, especially if you have problems with the adrenal glands.
In addition, tell your doctor if you are taking antacids, acid reducers, or drugs to treat stomach ulcers or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). These drugs can hinder the absorption of Cetoconazole by the body.
Ketoconazole should not be used to treat fungal infections in the brain or on the skin and nail.
Tell your doctor or dentist that you are taking this medication before you undergo any surgery, including dental procedures.
Ketoconazole is sometimes prescribed for the treatment of prostate cancer or Cushing’s syndrome, but the drug is not considered safe or effective for these purposes.
You may need to take Cytoconazole for six months or longer. Do not stop taking this medicine unless your doctor tells you about it.
If you stop taking ketoconazole too soon, your infection can return in a short time.
Pregnancy and Ketoconazole
Ketoconazole is in category C, which means that it is not known whether it will harm an unborn baby.
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while taking this medication.
This drug can penetrate into breast milk and can harm an infant. You should not breast-feed while taking Ketoconazole.
Side Effects of Ketoconazole
Tell your doctor if any of the following side effects become serious or persistent:
- Stomach pain, diarrhea, or constipation
- Heartburn or gas
- Change in ability to taste
- Change the color of the language
- Dry mouth
- Problems with sleep
- Numbness, tingling or burning of hands or feet
- Hair loss
- Pain in the muscles
- Sensitivity to light
- Breast augmentation in men
- Decreased sexual ability
Serious side effects
Immediately notify your doctor if you experience any of the symptoms listed in the “Alerts” section, or any of the following serious side effects:
- Rash, hives or itching
- Swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, hands, feet, ankles or feet
- Extreme fatigue
- Difficulty breathing or swallowing
Tell your doctor about all prescription, non-prescription, illegal, recreational, herbal, food or dietary preparations that you take before taking Ketoconazole, especially those listed in the “Warnings” section or any of the following:
- Aliskiren (Tekturna)
- Anticoagulants (blood thinners), such as dabigatran (Pradaxa), rivaroxaban (Xarelto) and warfarin (coumadin)
- Aprepitant (Emend)
- Aripiprazole (Abilify)
- Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
- Boscentan (Tracleer)
- Budesonide (Uceris)
- Buspirone (BuSpar)
- Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
- Calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor, Tiazac), nicardipine (cardene), nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia) and verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan)
- Cancer medications such as bortezomib (Velcade), busulfan (Myleran), dasatinib (Sprycel), docetaxel (taxotere), erlotinib (Tarceva), ixabepilone (Ixempra), lapatinib (Tykerb), nilotinib (Tasigna), paclitaxel (taxol), trimetrexate (Neutrexin), vincristine (Vincasar), vinblastine and vinorelbine (Navelbine)
- Ciclesonide (Alvesco)
- Cilostazol (Pletal)
- Cinacalcet (Sensipar)
- Colchicine (Colcrys, Col-Probenecid)
- Digoxin (lanoxin)
- Eletriptan (Relpax)
- Fentanyl (Abstral, Actiq, Duragesic, Fentora, Lazanda, Onsolis)
- Fesoterodine (Toviaz)
- Fluticasone (Flonase, Flovent)
- Haloperidol (Haldol)
- HIV preparations such as kakdarunavir (Presista), efavirenz (Sustiva), Fosamprenavir (Lexiva), Indinavir (Crixivan), Maraviroc (Celcentric), Nevirapine (Viramun), Ritonavir (Norvir) isavinavir (Invirase, Fortovaz)
- Immunosuppressants, such as cicloslosporin (Neoral, Sandimmune), everolimus (Afinitor, Zortress), sirolimus (Rapamune) and tacrolimus (Prograf)
- Imatinib (Gleevets)
- Drugs for erectile dysfunction, such as sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra)
- Medications for indigestion, heartburn, or ulcers, such as cimetidine (tagamet), famotidine (pepsid), lansoprazole (predacid), nizatidine (axis), omeprazole (prilosec) and ranitidine (Zantac)
- Drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis, such as isoniazid (INH, Nydrazid), rifabutin (mycobutin), rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)
- Methylprednisolone (Medrol)
- Nadolol (Korgard)
- Oxycodone (Oxecta, OxyContin, in Percocet, others)
- Phenytoin (Dilantin)
- Praziquantel (Biltricide)
- Quetiapine (Seroquel)
- Ramelteon (Rozerem)
- Repaglinide (Prandin, in PrandyMet)
- Risperdal (Risperdal)
- Salmeterol (Serevent, in Advair)
- Saxagliptin (Onglyza)
- Solifenacin (Vesicare)
- Tamsulosin (Flomax, JJ)
- Telithromycin (Ketek)
- Tolterodine (Detrol)
Ketoconazole is a tablet that must be taken by mouth. Usually it is taken once a day at about the same time.
The medicine can also be in creams and shampoos.
The cream is usually applied once a day for two to six weeks.
Prescription shampoo is usually used as a one-time treatment. OTC shampoo is usually used every three to four days for eight weeks and, if necessary, afterwards.
When taking this medicine, carefully follow the instructions on the label with the recipe. Do not take more or less medicine than prescribed.
Your doctor may increase the dose if your condition does not improve.
Overdose of Ketoconazole
If you suspect an overdose, immediately contact a poison control center or an emergency room.
Missed dose of ketoconazole
If you miss a dose of Ketoconazole, take it as soon as you remember.
However, if the next dose comes, skip it and continue with your usual dosing schedule.
Do not take additional medication to make up for the missed dose.