Paxil is a brand of paroxetine antidepressant.
Although doctors prescribe Paxil for the treatment of depression, it is also used to treat anxiety disorders, including:
- Panic disorder
- Social Anxiety Disorder
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
In addition, doctors can prescribe Paxiloff-label to treat conditions different from those for which it was approved by the FDA.
For example, some doctors prescribe Paxil for the treatment of chronic headaches, and people with diabetes can use this medication to relieve tingling in the hands and feet.
Paxil has also been used to treat people who experience premature ejaculation.
A controlled-release form, Paxil CR, can alleviate the physical and psychological symptoms that some women face before their menstrual cycle begins every month.
Paxil belongs to the class of antidepressants, which are called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
SSRIs work by increasing serotonin levels, a neurotransmitter that helps the brain send messages from one nerve cell to another.
History of Paxil
GloSmithKline producesPaxil, which the FDA first approved in 2001.
Paxil is also available under the trade names Brisdelle and Pexeva. General forms of paroxetine became available in 2003.
GlaxoSmithKline has repeatedly been exposed to fire for marketing Paxil and other antidepressants, including allegations that the company incorrectly reported clinical trial data that showed that Paxil could be unsafe for adolescents and young adults.
In 2012, GlaxoSmithKline agreed to pay a $ 3 billion fine to US federal prosecutors, in part for its antidepressant marketing practices.
The study, published in the medical journal BMJ in 2015, reanalyzed the data for 2001 and showed that Paxil is ineffective in treating depression in adolescents.
In addition, the study showed that drug use among adolescents was associated with significant harm, including thoughts of suicide and attempted suicide.
Paxil and other antidepressants should be given a warning because of the increased risk of suicide.
A growing body of research shows that some children, adolescents and young adults who take an antidepressant, such as Paxil, often develop suicidal thoughts or actions.
Young people under 24 who take these drugs to treat depression or other mental illness have a high risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior.
In some cases, the doctor can determine that the drug is suitable for someone younger than 18 years.
Children taking paroxetine can lose weight, so their doctor must closely monitor their growth while they take the medicine.
Adults taking Paxil for the treatment of depression or mental illness may also experience unexpected changes in their behavior or mental state.
Women taking low doses of the drug to relieve discomfort during menstruation can also change their behavior or mental state, even if they have never had depression or another mental illness.
People who take Paxil are more likely to become suicidal when they first start taking medication and whenever their dose of the drug increases.
A study conducted in 2014 showed that Paxil acts as an estrogen promoter, which can have consequences for women with estrogen-sensitive (estrogen-receptor) breast cancer.
Tell your doctor if you have ever had glaucoma or seizures. It is also important to inform your doctor if you have:
- Bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
- Liver disease
- Kidney problems
- Heart disease
- Recent heart attack
Tell your doctor about any herbal products or food supplements that you are taking, especially St. John’s wort (may increase the level of serotonin in the body), and make sure your doctor knows if any operations, including dental procedures, are planned.
Tell your doctor if you are using or have ever used illegal or recreational drugs or have abused prescription drugs. Your doctor can also check you if you have low levels of sodium in your blood.
Discontinuance of taking Paxil
People who use Paxil (or another antidepressant) may experience withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking the drug.
Symptoms of lifting Paxil include:
- Symptoms of influenza
- Confusion and anxiety
Your doctor will probably tell you to gradually reduce your use of Paxil.
Talk with your doctor about the best way to reduce or stop using Paxil or any other drug.
Paxil and pregnancy
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, you may become pregnant or breast-feeding before taking Paxil.
Pregnant women should not take Paxil, especially in the early stages of pregnancy and during the last few months of pregnancy. The drug can cause heart defects in unborn children and is associated with other health problems in newborns.
If you are breastfeeding, talk with your doctor before taking Paxil, because the drug may affect the quality of your breast milk.
Side effects of Paxil
Common side effects of Paxil include:
- Concentration on the complexities
- Extreme fatigue
- Nausea or vomiting
- Abdominal pain
- Changes in the ability to eat food
- Decreased appetite
- Changes in sexual desire or ability
- Dry mouth
- Sensitivity to light
- Pain in the back, muscles, bones or other parts of the body
- Swelling of the joints
- Muscle weakness
- Pain in the teeth and gums
- Strange dreams
- Painful or irregular menstruation
Serious side effects can also occur. If you have any of these side effects, stop taking paroxetine and see a doctor right away:
- Unclear vision
- Fast or irregular heartbeat
- Thoracic pain
- Labored breathing
- Abnormal bleeding or bruising
- Tiny red spots directly under the skin
- Peeling or swelling of the skin
- Symptoms of infection, such as sore throat, fever, chills, and cough
- Sudden involuntary twitching of muscles
- Numbness or tingling in your hands or feet
- Frequent urination
- More difficult or painful urination
- Painful erection, which lasts for hours
Paxil and weight gain
Like many antidepressants, Paxil was associated with weight gain among drug users.
Studies have shown that up to a quarter of people taking SSRIs, such as Paxil, receive an increase in weight of 10 pounds or more, especially if they take the drug for extended periods of time.
Your doctor may suggest changing your diet and increasing the amount of exercise to reduce your chances of gaining weight by taking Paxil.
Paroxetine can interact with other drugs, so taking paroxetine with other drugs can affect how each drug works.
It is very important that your doctor knows about all the medicines that you take, including illegal or recreational drugs and OTC medicines, herbs and food supplements.
Types of drugs that are known to interact with paroxetine include:
- Inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAOI), including isobarzazid (Marplan), linezolid (Zyvox) and phenolzine (Nardil)
- Blood solvents such as warfarin (coumadin)
- Medications for irregular heart rhythms, such as amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), encainide (Enkaid), and flecainide (Tambocor)
- Drugs used to treat nausea
- Medications for migraine headaches, such as almotriptan (Axert), eletriptan (Relpax), and frovatriptan (Frova)
- Anti-seizure drugs, including phenobarbital and phenytoin (Dilantin)
- Antidepressants such as amitriptyline (Elavil), amoxapine (asendin), and clomipramine (anaphranil)
- Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as celecoxib (Celebrex), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn)
- Diuretics (“water tablets”)
- Codeine, which is found in many cough and pain medications
- Other SSRIs, such as citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), and fluvoxamine (Luvox)
- Gastrointestinal drugs, including ranitidine (Zantac), metoclopramide (Reglan) and cimetidine (Tagamet)
- Some antibiotics, such as rifampin (Rifadine, Rimaktan), isoniazid (INH, Nydrazid), and dicloxacillin (Dynapen)
- The drug ADHD-narcoxetine (Straterra)
- HIV drugs, including atazanavir (Reyetas) and ritonavir (Norvir)
- Some medications from the heart, such as clopidogrel (Plavix), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL) and propranolol (Inderal)
- Anti-anxiety medications, including buspirone (dopamine) and diazepam (valium)
- Drugs prescribed for other mental illnesses, in addition to depression, including chlorpromazine (torazine), risperidone (risperdal), and haloperidol (Haldol)
- Antifungal drugs, such as terbinafine (Lamisil)
- Some pain killers, including fentanyl (Actiq, Duragesic, Fentora), meperidine (Demerol), and methadone (dolofins)
- Tamoxifen breast cancer (Nolvadex)
Paxil and alcohol
Most doctors recommend that you limit alcohol consumption or even eliminate it when taking Paxil.
Both alcohol and Paxil can affect your opinion, as well as cause dizziness or drowsiness.
Because of this, do not operate the machine until you learn how Paxil affects you.
Dosage of Paxil
Paxil is available as a liquid, in capsules and in the form of long-acting tablets.
The drug is delivered in four doses: 10 milligrams (mg), 20 mg, 30 mg and 40 mg.
Usually take Paxil once a day in the morning or evening.
You do not need to take Paxil with food, but it can help prevent upset stomach.
Do not forget to take Paxil whole: do not crush or chew the medicine.
For people with major depressive disorder (MDD), the recommended range of doses is 20 to 50 mg per day.
If you have obsessive-compulsive disorder, the recommended dose of paroxetine is 40 mg per day.
People usually start taking 20 mg per day. Your doctor may increase your dose by 10 mg every day, but your dose should not exceed 60 mg per day.
For people with panic disorder, the recommended daily dose of paroxetine is 40 mg.
Those with generalized anxiety disorder usually take from 20 mg to 50 mg per day, and those with posttraumatic stress disorder usually take 20 mg per day.
Symptoms of overdose may include:
- Drowsiness or severe fatigue
- Involuntary shaking or twitching
- Rapid, pounding, irregular or slow heartbeat
- Unclear vision
- Unusual bruising or bleeding
- Loss of energy or appetite
- Pain in the upper right side of the stomach
- Symptoms of influenza
- Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
- Aggressive behavior
- Muscle pain, stiffness or weakness
- Dark red or brown urine
- Anxious urination
- Feeling unusually excited
- Problems with walking
If you or someone else has overdose symptoms, call the toxicology center.
The missed dose of Paxil
Continue taking paroxetine as directed by your doctor, even if you are feeling well. If your doctor decides to reduce the dose of the drug, it will gradually decrease over time.
If you miss a dose of paroxetine, skip it as soon as you remember.
If it’s time for the next dose, skip it.
Do not take twice as much paroxetine at a time to make up for the missed dose.