Tramadol is the generic name for an anesthetic prescription, sold under the brands Ultram, Conzip, Rybix ODT and Ultram ER.
Doctors prescribe Tramadol for the treatment of moderate and severe pain in adults.
Tramadol is supplied in the form of a plate and in the form of a tablet or an extended-release capsule for the treatment of 24-hour pain.
He is in a class of painkillers called narcotic opioid analgesics, which work by changing how your brain reacts to pain. This can increase the levels of neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin.
Ultracet is a combination drug made from tramadol and acetaminophen.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Tramadol in 1995 for the pharmaceutical company Janssen Pharmaceuticals under the trademark Ultram.
In 2002, the FDA approved a general version of Tramadol, which is now produced by many companies.
A study conducted in 2014 showed that providing Tramadol to people before surgery can help relieve the shiver after anesthesia, a common complication that develops in people recovering from general anesthesia.
Tramadol and abuse
Although Tramadol is widely considered safe and endorsed by the FDA, there have been many reports of abuses, as the drug may have an effect similar to opium, giving the drug a drug effect.
In 2010, Janssen and the FDA issued a revised warning for Tramadol tablets, advising doctors not to prescribe drugs to people with suicidal thoughts, drug addicts who take tranquilizers or antidepressants, have alcohol problems or are emotionally unstable.
In 2011, Tramadol was associated with 20,000 emergency department visits across the country, MedPage Today reported.
Only in Florida in 2011 there were 379 deaths from an overdose involving Tramadol, which significantly affects 106 deaths recorded in 2003.
As a result of these and many other incidents, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) classified Tramadol as a controlled substance in 2014, subjecting the drug to more stringent controls.
Tramadol may increase the risk of infection.
This can happen at a normal dose, but is more likely if you take more Tramadol than prescribed.
You may have an increased risk if you are taking an antidepressant or another opioid pain medication. You can also be at risk if you have a history of drug or alcohol abuse.
People who are prone to suicide or are addicted to addiction should not take Tramadol. Those who have a history of emotional disorders (including depression or alcohol abuse) should consider using narcotic analgesics.
Because Tramadol increases the amount of serotonin in your brain, you may have a risk for a condition called serotonin syndrome if you combine Tramadol with other drugs that also increase serotonin levels, especially antidepressants.
Symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, nausea, muscle stiffness, lack of coordination and / or loss of consciousness.
Tramadol can be addictive. Admission Tramadol for a long time and in high doses can lead to the fact that you become addicted.
This means that if you abruptly stop taking Tramadol, you may experience sweating, nausea, muscle pain, insomnia, tremors and anxiety.
Tramadol can cause a decrease in your ability to breathe, a condition called respiratory depression. Life-threatening respiratory depression can occur if you take too much Tramadol.
You may have an increased risk of developing respiratory depression if you use other opioid pain killers, street drugs, alcohol or tranquilizers, or if you have a history of head trauma or high blood pressure in your brain.
You may not be able to take Tramadol if you have severe asthma or any lung disease that causes breathing problems.
Before you start taking Tramadol, also tell your doctor if you have or have had any of the following:
- Head injury
- Diseases of the liver, such as cirrhosis or liver damage from past illness
- Digestive or digestive problems, such as constipation
- Kidney disease or related problems
- Any mental condition, such as depression, bipolar disorder, or other
- Thoughts of suicide
- Brain infection or brain tumor
- A history of drug or alcohol abuse
Pregnancy and Tramadol
Tramadol can harm a developing fetus.
If you are a woman, tell your doctor if you are pregnant. If you become pregnant while taking Tramadol, tell your doctor immediately.
In addition to the risk of harm to the developing fetus, Tramadol can cause dangerous withdrawal symptoms in newborns.
Tramadol also passes into breast milk, so do not breast-feed while taking Tramadol.
Anyone under the age of 16 should not take Tramadol.
Tramadol for dogs and cats
Tramadol is often used to treat pain in dogs and cats, especially after surgery and chronic pain.
Because many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are not safe for use in cats, Tramadol is a widely used alternative anesthetic for cats.
In dogs and cats, Tramadol can cause constipation.
Tramadol: side effects
If you have any side effects from Tramadol, tell your doctor immediately.
The most common side effects are dizziness, nausea, constipation and headache.
If you have any of these serious side effects, immediately consult your doctor, get emergency help, or call 911.
- Labored breathing
- Symptoms of the syndrome of serotonin: agitation, fever, nausea, muscle stiffness, lack of coordination or loss of consciousness
- Thoracic pain
- Severe drowsiness
- Swelling of the face, tongue, throat, or extremities
- Severe rash
- Thoughts of suicide
Other side effects include:
- Feelings of excitement or nervousness
- Dry mouth
- Loss of appetite
If you are more than 65 years old, you may have an increased risk of Tramadol’s side effects, especially digestive side effects such as constipation.
People older than 75 years may need to take a lower dose of Tramadol than is usually prescribed.
Some drugs may interfere with the work of Tramadol, and Tramadol may affect other medicines that you take.
Tell your doctor about all the medicines that you take.
Types of drugs that are known to interact with Tramadol include:
- Blood solvents such as warfarin (coumadin)
- Antifungal drugs, including ketoconazole (Nizoral)
- Antibiotics such as erythromycin (EES, E-Mycin, Erythrocin) and linezolid (Zyvox)
- Drugs used to treat bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, including lithium (lithobase)
- Drugs for depression, including monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, such as isocarboxazide (Marplan) and phenelzine (Nardil); serotonin reuptake inhibitors of norepinephrine (SNRI), such as desvenlafaxine (Pristiq) and duloxetine (Cymbalta); tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline; and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as citalopram (Celexa) and fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem)
- Cardiac drugs, including digoxin (lanoxin)
- Medications for anxiety, such as paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva) and sertraline (Zoloft)
- Other painkillers, such as oxycodone (Roxcodone)
- Migraine headaches, including almotriptan (Axert), eletriptan (Relpax) and frevaptriptan (Frova)
- Medications for seizures, such as carbamazepine (Equetro, Tegretol)
- Muscle relaxants, including cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril)
- Rifampin (Rifadine, Rifamate, Rimaktan)
- St. John’s Wort
Tramadol and other interactions
Tramadol can cause you drowsiness and dizziness.
Do not lead or take part in any dangerous activities until you learn how Tramadol affects you.
Tramadol and alcohol
Do not drink alcohol and do not use street drugs while taking Tramadol.
The use of alcohol when taking Tramadol may increase the risk of dangerous side effects.
Dosage of Tramadol
Your dose of Tramadol will depend on your level of pain and how you react to the medication.
Your doctor can start with a low dose and gradually increase it to find the dose that works for you.
This is a typical dosing schedule for those who are just starting to take Tramadol:
- Your doctor will most likely start with 25 milligrams (mg) every morning.
- This dose may increase to 25 mg every three days to reach a maximum dose of 100 mg per day (25 mg, four times a day), depending on how much the drug alleviates your pain.
- If necessary, your doctor may increase individual doses of 50 mg every three days to reach a maximum dose of 200 mg per day (50 mg, four times a day).
- A normal adult dose should not exceed 400 mg per day.
- For a person with cirrhosis (liver damage), the daily dose should not exceed 100 mg within 24 hours.
- For a person with kidney disease, the daily dose should not exceed 200 mg.
- For someone older than 75 days, the daily dose should not exceed 200 mg.
You can take regular and dissolving tablets with or without food every four to six hours as needed.
Before taking Tramadol tablets, make sure that your hands are dry and very gently remove the medicine from the package.
Do not squeeze soluble tablets through foil packaging. Immediately place the plate on the tongue.
Usually you should take the pill at the same time every day.
Overdose Tramadol can cause labored breathing and can be fatal.
Symptoms of an overdose of Tramadol include:
- Respiratory depression
- Superficial breathing
- Narrow pupils
- Extreme Weakness
- Cold and sticky skin
- Slow heartbeat
- Loss of consciousness
If you think you have an overdose, immediately call 911.
Missed dose of Tramadol
It is extremely important that you take Tramadol exactly as directed by your doctor. Do not take more or less.
Do not stop taking Tramadol abruptly, because it can cause a dangerous withdrawal reaction.
If you miss a dose of Tramadol, take the missed dose as soon as you remember.
If it is time for the next dose, skip it and continue the regular dosage schedule.
Do not double your dose to make up for the missed one, because in this way you can cause dangerous side effects.